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Toadfish Introduction The toadfish, Tetractenos glaber (Tetraodontidae family) has been given this name due to their toad like appearance. The variety of species from various families of fish has been given the common name as 'toad fish'. The entire family of Batrachoididae is called as toadfish. These tadpoles are found in the sandy and muddy marine bottoms and can be found in the different parts of the world. However, there are few toadfish species that live in freshwater, for example, Daector quadrizonatus. These are found in the River Arato in Colombia and the other one Thalassophryne amazonica is found in the Amazon River.

Toadfish Facts and Behavior : The toadfish< has the broad head and a drab coloration. Their mouths are large, which is decorated with barbelsand their skin flaps. They are drab in color. In Thlassophryne megalops their length may range up to 7.5 cm, while in Pacuna toadfish they measure up to 57 cm. Their gills are small and occur on the side of the fish. They have one spine with several soft rays. The number of vertebrae ranges from 25 to 47. The toadfish of Thalassophryninae are poisonous in nature. It has one dorsal spine situated on each operacle and two dorsal spines, which is connected to the venom glands. One of its group Porichthys has photophores and thus they emit light through these glowing organs. They are omnivorous and feed on sea worms, mollusks, crustaceans and other small fish.

Distribution : Most of the toadfish are marine fishes found in brackish water, and only one of the sub-family is found in freshwater in South America. Deactor quadrizonatus is found in the Atrato River and Thalassophryne is found in the Amazon River.

Reproduction : The males attract female by making nest and singing. They sing by contracting the muscles on their swim bladder. The females stick the egg on the side of the nest, as it is sticky from one side. The egg is large from the beginning and hatches after one month. The male then guard the nest and eggs rapidly get developed into an embryo. They remain attached to the side of the nest until they become three to four weeks old. They hide behind the females until they grow enough to feed themselves.

Freshwater Toadfish The freshwater toadfish (Allenbatrachus grunniens) belongs to the family of Batrachoididae. They are widespread around Indo-Pacific region. They are found in Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia. They live in the muddy areas or amongst rocks. It can grow up to a size of 12 inches (30 cm). They can be stored in a tank of 110 liters. The tank or aquarium should have water temperature of (23-28) degree Celsius and the pH level should be between (7.8 to 8.5). They like to eat earthworms and bloodworm. This species is popular among fish preservers because of its unique appearance. It is also known as grunting toadfish as it has the ability to produce grunt like sounds. They produce these sounds when they are threatened and in the spawning condition. They are also commonly known as freshwater scorpion fish and freshwater stonefish. One of its dangerous characteristics is that it posses poisonous spines. However, its spines are not so dangerous, as it just causes mild irritation.