English Sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), are the flat fishes, which belong to the Pleuronectidae family. These fishes generally live in muddy and sandy bottoms near the shores and estuaries. They have a pointed snout and a compressed body. The coloration can be seen on the right side of the body. These creatures have reddish-brown coloration with white to pale yellow on the either side of the eyes. These species can grow up to a size of 22.5 inches in length.
English Sole Facts
These fishes are very interesting in their life and behavior. Some of the interesting facts about these species are as follows:
Habitat and Distribution
These Pleuronectes vetulus are found near the Pacific coast of Mexico, Canada and United States. They are the inhabitants of Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, etc. The juvenile of these species are found mainly near shores and estuaries, whereas the adult can be found at the depths of around 18000 feet. Also, the adults and juvenile of these species like to live in soft bottoms where there is mud and fine sand. These species can adapt very well to the changes in the environment. (These English Sole are also known to migrate from to a limited on longer distances).rewrite the sentence. After spawning, in the summers they may move to the north in search of food and return back in the fall.
The larvae of these species feed on zooplankton. They like to eat tiny sea animals and plants. The adults and juveniles of these species are carnivorous and like to feed on small crustaceans, shrimps, bivalves, worms and bottom dwelling invertebrates. These species use their smell and sight to catch their prey.
Breeding / Reproduction
The female of these species are known to grow twice as long as the males. The males of these species get mature when they grow at the age of two years, whereas the females get mature when they reach up to the age of three years. In addition, the females get matured when they reach up to the size of 1.15 feet. These species spawn in the season from winter to early spring, and it also depends on the geographical area. They spawn at a depth of about (164 to 230) feet, over soft bottom mud substrate. A mature female can produce about (150000 to 2000000) eggs. The eggs sink before they hatch and the larva remain for about (2 to 3) months on the surface of water. The juvenile of these species spend around (1 to 2) years near shore or in estuaries and then it moves to the deeper water. The females of these species have a life span of about 20 years, whereas the males have the life span of around 16 years. These fishes have predators such as marine mammals and fish-eating birds. Sharks and other large fishes are also known to feed on the adult of the species.
English Sole Commercial Value
These fishes are caught with the help of trawls and are very famous in the group of flatfishes.